in Diabetes
Diabetes in adults is associated with a high risk of vascular disease (2 to 4 fold greater than that of individuals without diabetes), with CVD the primary cause of death among people with type 1 or type 2 diabetes (5-7). Aggressive management of all CV risk factors, including dyslipidemia, is therefore generally necessary (8). The most common lipid pattern in type 2 diabetes consists of hypertriglyceridemia (hyper-TG), low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and normal plasma concentrations of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). However, in the presence of even mild hyper-TG, LDL-C particles are typically small and dense and may be more susceptible to oxidation. Chronic hyperglycemia promotes the glycation of LDL-C and both these processes are believed to increase the atherogenicity of LDL-C. In those with type 1 diabetes, plasma lipid and lipoprotein concentrations may be normal, but there may be oxidation and glycation of the lipoproteins, which may impair their function and/or enhance their atherogenicity.